First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague Charles University in Prague

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Human Physiology and Pathophysiology

The programme Human Physiology and Pathophysiology is focused on the study of functions of particular systems of the organism (blood, circulatory system, breathing, digestive, urinary, humoral, nervous systems) and their control, from the molecular level up to the study of mutual relations between particular systems under normal conditions and pathologic states. Equally important is the study of factors that can affect the mechanisms of development, plasticity and adaptation to epigenetic and internal influences.
The experimental and analytic approach of learning enables you to use the knowledge gained for prevention, diagnostics, therapy and rehabilitation of the human organism. 

The objective of the studies in the study programme Human Physiology and Pathophysiology is training the students in such a way so that they will be capable of independent scientific work as necessary for understanding of physiologic and pathophysiologic mechanisms that can be the cause of major clinical conditions.

Study obligations
Study obligations are part of the individualized curriculum („study plan“) of the student designed by the Supervising Tutor (or advisor/tutor) and based on the annotation handed in during the admission procedure. The fulfillment of the individualized curriculum is controlled and granted by the Supervising Tutor and the Guarantor of the program of study. Possible changes in the individualized curriculum must be justified and approved by the Field Board, the Guarantor of the program of study and the Dean of the faculty. The student must obtain credits from at least three courses from the courses offered in Biomedicine. One of the courses can be completed abroad. If involved as an undergraduate tutor, the tuition may be recognized as a completion of the Course of Human Physiology and Pathophysiology.

Part of the curriculum is also the language exam in English (examination at the Institute for History of Medicine and Foreign Languages, State Language Examination or an internationally recognized exam, e.g. TOEFL, Cambridge Certificate).

Successful completion of the State Doctoral Exam

Courses rendered by the Filed Board in the program Human Physiology and Pathophysiology:
B90054 Elektrofyziologické metody v lékařském výzkumu (Electrophysiological methods in clinical practice and research)
B90209 Fyzikální interakce krevního oběhu a cévní stěny a současné metody jejich studia (Physical interaction of blood circulation and vessel wall and current methods of their examination)
B90044 Vybrané problémy endokrinologie a metabolismu (Selected issues of endocrinology and metabolism)
B90275 Biomedicine and Biotechnology
B90276 Jak být pánem a ne otrokem klinického výzkumu (How to be the Master and not a Slave of Clinical Research)
The link to the courses can be found here.

Requirements on creative activities
1) Elaboration of the literary summary/overview
2) At least two original publications in journals with IF

Requirements on placements taken
A recommended part of study obligations in doctoral studies is taking a study placement abroad, not shorter than 1 month.

Other study requirements
Part of the studies is active participation on both national and international scientific conferences.

State doctoral examination
Prerequisites for the State Doctoral Examination
1) Language exam in English (examination at the Institute for History of Medicine and Foreign Languages, State Language Examination or an internationally recognized exam, e.g. TOEFL, Cambridge certificate)
2) Credits from at least three courses
3) Literary overview to the topic of the tesis with hypothesis and the aim of work (15 – 20 pages without literature)
4) At least one original publication on the topic of the thesis in journals with IF (only work in extenso is recognized, not abstracts,case studies or Letter to the Editor).

The State Doctoral Examination is open to public and is presided by the committee nominated by the Dean according to the proposal of the Field Board. The Supervising Tutor (or advisor/tutor) is one of the members of the committee.
1) The student announces one of the triad of the topic areas determined in advance.(?) The questions are available here:
2) The members of the Board evaluate the literary summary and discuss their remarks, questions and objections with the student,
3) In a closed session, the Board shall evaluate the course of the examination and sets the mark.
4) The result will be announced to the student.
5) The members of the Board will sign the protocol of the examination.

General topic areas. Each area consists of approximately fourteen questions which the student draws at random
1) Principals of the physiological regulations
2) Physiology of the cell
3) Internal environment and the defence system of the organism
4) Cardiopulmonary system and its role in the regulation of homeostasis
5) Pathophysiology of the cardiopulmonary system
6) Conversion of substances and forms of energies
7) Excretory systems and their disorders
8) Endocrine regulation and its disorders
9) Blood and respiration
10) Sensory information inputs
11) Executive nervous functions and their disorders
12) Physiology and Patophysiology of behavious, biorhythms
13) Developmental physiology
14) Gastrointestinal tract

Recommended literature
Lékařská fyziologie, O. Kittnar a kol., Grada 2011
Přehled lékařské fyziologie, Ganong, Galén 2005
Atlas fyziologie člověka, S. Silbernagl, A. Despopoulos, Grada 2016
Atlas patofyziologie, S. Silbernagl, F. Lang, Grada 2012
Atlas fyziologických regulací, O. Kittnar, M. Mlček, Grada 2009
Jakákoliv cizojazyčná učebnice fyziologie a patofyziologie člověka

Requisites for commencement of the defence:
1) State Doctoral Examination
2) At least two original publications pertaining to the topic of the dissertation thesis, with the total impact factor at least one. In at least one of them, the applicant should be the first author.
3) The dissertation thesis as well as the Summary report of the dissertation must be formulated according to the guidelines on the webpages of the faculty.

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